13 Jun 2018
State-of-the-Art Powertrains for Lowest CO2 Emissions and Reduced Environmental Impact
- Electrification pillar of PACE! plan secured with PSA platform strategy
- Opel BEV offensive starting with new Opel Corsa in 2020
- Electrified Dual Clutch Transmission for mild hybrids as of 2022
- Opel ahead of regulation requirements with 79 Opel models already compliant with Euro 6d-TEMP emissions standard
- Responsibility for the development of next-generation four-cylinder petrol engines
- Best-in-class diesel engines rolled out across Opel and Vauxhall ranges
- Cutting-edge ICE technologies to lower CO2 emissions rolled out across Opel and Vauxhall ranges
Rüsselsheim. In addition to electrification, highly efficient and economical combustion engines play an important role in the reduction of emissions. Groupe PSA is leading the automotive industry in the implementation of the future European Euro 6d-TEMP emissions standard, which includes Real Driving Emissions (RDE) measured on public roads. In total, 79 variants already meet the Euro 6d-TEMP emissions standard. Petrol, CNG and LPG power units complying with Euro 6d-TEMP will be available across the Opel model range – comprising ADAM, KARL and Corsa, Astra, Cascada and Insignia, Mokka X, Crossland X, Grandland X and Zafira – plus compliant diesel versions.
New strategic step in lowering emissions with innovative emissions reduction systems
In general, diesel engines have low CO2 emissions and are thus climate friendly. The newest generation of advanced diesel engines also features exemplary NOx treatment and is Euro 6d-TEMP compliant. The innovative combination of oxidation catalyst/NOx adsorber and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) ensures lowest levels of NOx emissions for these four-cylinder units. It is highly unlikely that owners of these high-tech engines will have to worry about potential driving bans in the future. The new units with 1.5 and 2.0-litre BlueHDi are already on sale in the Opel Grandland X.
The new, 100 per cent digitally designed, 1.5-litre, four-cylinder, turbocharged engine is more efficient than the engine it replaces. Opel offers the 96 kW/130 hp 1.5-litre diesel in the Grandland X with a six-speed manual transmission and Start/Stop (fuel consumption: urban 4.7 l/100 km, extra-urban 3.9-3.8 l/100 km, combined 4.2-4.1 l/100 km, 110-108 g/km CO2). Maximum torque is 300 Nm at 1,750 rpm.
The cylinder head with integrated air intake manifold and the crankcase are made of lightweight aluminium, while the four valves per cylinder are activated by dual overhead camshafts. The common rail direct injection system operates at up to 2,000 bar, with fuel entering the combustion chambers through eight-hole injector nozzles. The 96 kW/130 hp engine is equipped with a turbocharger featuring variable geometry turbine vanes (VGT), which are activated electrically.
For optimum exhaust after-treatment, the emissions reduction system – consisting of a passive oxidation catalyst/NOx adsorber, AdBlue injector, SCR catalyst and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) – is grouped together as a compact single unit, as near as possible to the engine. The NOx adsorber acts as a cold start catalyst, reducing NOx emissions at temperatures below the SCR light-off. With this innovative technology the Opel vehicles fitted with the new 1.5-litre diesel already meet the regulatory limit of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) compliance factor required in 2020.
The same applies to the new top-of-the-line Grandland X engine: the 2.0-litre turbo diesel (fuel consumption1: urban 5.3-5.3 l/100 km, extra-urban 4.6-4.5 l/100 km, combined 4.9-4.8 l/100 km, 128-126 g/km CO2) delivers 130 kW/177 hp at 3,750 rpm and maximum torque of 400 Nm at 2,000 rpm. This powers the Grandland X from zero to 100 km/h in 9.1 seconds and to a maximum speed of 214 km/h.
Despite its feistiness, the Grandland X 2.0 diesel is very efficient with its combined consumption of less than five litres. Just like the 1.5-litre diesel, it also comes with an extremely efficient exhaust emissions after-treatment with the combination of NOx adsorber and AdBlue injection (SCR, Selective Catalytic Reduction), which removes nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the engine’s exhaust gases. The watery urea solution, which contains ammonia, reacts with the nitrogen oxides in the SCR catalytic converter and creates harmless nitrogen and water vapour.
In addition to the engine itself, combining it with the new eight-speed automatic transmission plays a big role in achieving these exemplary values. After the Insignia flagship, the Grandland X is the second Opel with such a comfortable and efficient eight-speed automatic gearbox and further models will follow soon.
Award-winning Groupe PSA PureTech 3-cylinder petrol engines set standards
Highly efficient petrol engines with smaller displacements (downsizing) and turbocharging are just as much part of a healthy drive mix as electric motors, hybrids and clean diesel engines. The Groupe PSA PureTech petrol engines are such state-of-the-art units. The highly efficient full-aluminium three-cylinder design has won the “Engine of the Year” award four times in a row, thus setting standards in the automotive industry. Opel uses these economical downsized units with 1.2-litre displacement in the Crossland X, Grandland X and, in the near future, in Combo and Combo Life. In order to reduce logistics, production of the engine takes place as near as possible to the vehicle plant. Due to the high demand, 2018 production capacity in the French plants Douvrin and Trémery has doubled in comparison to 2016. In addition, Groupe PSA will produce PureTech engines in Tichy (Poland) and Szentgotthárd (Hungary) as of 2019.
Most PureTech engines already comply with Euro 6d-TEMP. The direct-injection engines feature an effective exhaust after-treatment system comprising Gasoline Particulate Filter, a new-technology catalytic converter and very efficient temperature management. Internally, a new generation of oxygen sensors enables a highly precise calculation of the air-fuel mixture. This is created in the combustion chamber, into which the fuel is directly injected at up to 250 bar.
Internal friction of the three-cylinder engines has been reduced to the minimum for clean combustion in addition to saving fuel. The PureTech engines are also very compact in design and therefore require little space in the vehicle. So the designers enjoy more creative freedom, while the aerodynamics and thus the fuel consumption also benefit from this flexibility.
The base petrol engine in the Opel Crossland X is the 1.2-litre unit with 60 kW/81 hp (fuel consumption1: urban 6.2 l/100 km, extra-urban 4.4 l/100 km, combined 5.1 l/100 km, 117 g/km CO2). Further up the line is the 1.2 Turbo petrol direct-injection engine in two transmission versions:
- The especially economical ECOTEC variant is exclusively available with a friction-optimised six-speed gearbox (fuel consumption1: 5.4 l/100 km, extra-urban 4.3 l/100 km, combined 4.7 l/100 km, 107 g/km CO2) and produces 81 kW/110 hp.
- Equally powerful is the three-cylinder 1.2 Turbo in combination with the six-speed automatic (fuel consumption1: urban 6.5-6.3 l/100 km, extra-urban 4.8 l/100 km, combined 5.4-5.3 l/100 km, 123-121 g/km CO2).
Both engines develop 205 Nm of torque from only 1,500 rpm, 95 per cent of which is available in the frequently used range up 3,500 rpm. With such high low-end torque, the Opel Crossland X delivers superior and economical performance.
The most powerful petrol engine is the 1.2 Turbo with 96 kW/130 hp, strong torque of 230 Nm as of 1,750 rpm (fuel consumption1: urban 6.2 l/100 km, extra-urban 4.6 l/100 km, combined 5.1 l/100 km, 117 g/km CO2) plus six-speed manual gearbox. The Opel Crossland X thus sprints from zero to 100 in 9.9 seconds and reaches a maximum speed of 201 km/h.
The top-of-the-line PureTech three-cylinder unit also powers the Opel Grandland X. In this application the 1.2-litre direct-injection Turbo petrol engine also produces 96 kW/130 hp (fuel consumption 1.2 Turbo1: urban 6.4-6.1 l/100 km, extra-urban 4.9-4.7 l/100 km, combined 5.5-5.2 l/100 km, 127-120 g/km CO2). The lively power unit with automatic transmission accelerates the compact SUV from zero to 100 km/h in 10.9 seconds.
Next generation of four-cylinder petrol engines from Rüsselsheim
The Rüsselsheim Engineering Center will take on the global responsibility for the development of the next generation of high-efficiency petrol engines for all Groupe PSA brands (Peugeot, Citroën, DS Automobiles, Opel and Vauxhall). The next generation of four-cylinder engines will be optimised for operation in combination with electric motors and will be used in the drive train of hybrid systems. Market introduction will begin in 2022.
The new generation of engines is designated for use in all Groupe PSA brands in China, Europe and North America, meeting the future emissions standards of these markets. The power units feature state-of-the-art technologies such as direct injection, turbocharging and variable valve control. The engines are thus highly efficient and will deliver low fuel consumption and low CO2 values.
“Rüsselsheim already had global responsibility for engine development when we were still part of GM. With the development of the new generation of four-cylinder petrol engines, we can exploit one of our key competencies. The economical direct-injection unit, in combination with hybrid technology, will consolidate the strong position of Groupe PSA in lowering CO2 emissions,” said Opel’s Managing Director Engineering, Christian Müller.
Opel goes electric
Elsewhere, Opel will also go electric. The electrification of the Opel product portfolio is at the core of the PACE! strategic plan. One of the main goals of this plan is to meet the 95-gramme CO2 limit of the EU by 2020 and to offer customers eco-friendly cars. Groupe PSA is looking to leverage its expertise in low emissions technologies. The platform developed by Groupe PSA will allow the Opel and Vauxhall brands to go electric quickly and efficiently. By 2024, all Opel/Vauxhall passenger cars will be based on these two multi-energy platforms. The new CMP (Common Modular Platform) is the basis both for conventional propulsion systems as well as for a generation of electric vehicles (from urban to SUV). In addition, EMP2 (Efficient Modular Platform) is the basis for the next generation of internal combustion engine and plug-in hybrid vehicles (SUV, CUV, mid-range and high-end vehicles). These platforms enable a flexible adaptation to the development of the powertrain mix, depending on future market demands.
Opel will already have four electrified model lines on the market by 2020, including the Ampera-e, the Grandland X as a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and the next Corsa generation with a battery electric variant. Moving forward, all European passenger car lines will be electrified, either with a battery electric or plug-in hybrid variant, alongside models powered by highly efficient combustion engines. Opel/Vauxhall will thus become a leader in emissions reduction and be a fully electrified European passenger car brand by 2024. The electrification of the light commercial vehicle portfolio begins in 2020 to meet customer needs and the future requirements of urban areas.
New Opel Corsa also as fully electric vehicle in 2020
The engineering team in Rüsselsheim is currently making a major contribution to the development of the electric version of the new Corsa generation, a battery-powered variant. Opel can draw on a wealth of experience with the two electric cars Ampera (premiere Geneva Motor Show 2009) and Ampera-e (Paris 2016) during this process. The Opel Ampera-e fully suitable for everyday use set standards with its range of up to 520 kilometres according to the New European Driving Cycle. Be it hardware, software, battery-pack or manufacturing, Rüsselheim’s expertise in all these areas is highly valued within Groupe PSA. The new Corsa including the electric variant will be built in the Spanish plant in Zaragoza.
“Opel and the sister brands of Groupe PSA will have the right solutions for their customers at the right time,” said Opel CEO Michael Lohscheller. “However, offering electric vehicles will not suffice to give electric mobility a decisive boost. All stakeholders – industry and governments – must work together and act in concert while looking beyond the automobile, for example at an infrastructure for charging stations. Closing the ranks between future mobility and the power supply based on renewable energy sources is a task for society as a whole. Ultimately the customers decide what they buy. The whole package has to be convincing and work for them.”
Electric mobility is a must. For customers, an electric car should be stress-free and as easy to operate as a car with a combustion engine. Based on a comprehensive strategic electric mobility plan, Groupe PSA is developing an entire product range to meet customer needs around the globe. It includes a complete product portfolio of battery-electric (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). By 2021, 50 per cent of the Groupe PSA model portfolio will have an electric option (BEV or PHEV). By 2023, this will be 80 per cent and by 2025 100 per cent. The introduction of mild hybrids will begin in 2022. In addition, the Engineering Center in Rüsselsheim is working intensively on the fuel cell – for electric vehicles with a driving range of around 500 kilometres and which can be refuelled in less than three minutes (Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, FCEV).
To meet the challenges of the energy transition even more quickly, Groupe PSA announced the creation of an LEV (Low Emission Vehicles) business unit dedicated to electric vehicles on April 1, 2018. This business unit led by Alexandre Guignard – in which all Groupe PSA brands including Opel/Vauxhall are represented – will be responsible for defining and deploying the Group’s electric vehicle strategy and rolling out the related products and services worldwide. This is an important step towards the group goal of developing an electric option for the entire product portfolio by 2025. Implementation begins in 2019.
Essential elements of the electric vehicles will be developed and manufactured within Groupe PSA. This applies to electric motors and transmissions, so Groupe PSA has, for example, entered into strategic partnerships with e-motor specialist Nidec and gearbox manufacturer AISIN AW. Furthermore, a cooperation with Punch Powertrain was recently announced that will give all Groupe PSA brands access to the patented e-DCT (electrified Dual Clutch Transmission) systems. This will enable a further drive alternative from 2022: the so-called hybrid DT2 features an integrated 48V electric motor and will equip mild hybrid vehicles in the future. The electric motor either serves as a high-torque drive or recuperates energy during coasting and braking. The DCT is especially lightweight and compact, offering outstanding performance and very low fuel consumption at competitive costs.
 WLTP measurements converted to NEDC values for comparison.
Further information about official fuel consumption, official specific CO2 emissions and consumption of electric energy can be found in the “guideline about fuel consumption, CO2 Emissions and electric energy consumption of new passenger cars” ('Leitfaden über den Kraftstoffverbrauch, die CO2-Emissionen und den Stromverbrauch neuer Personenkraftwagen') in German language, which is available free of charge at any point of sales and at DAT Deutsche Automobil Treuhand GmbH, Helmuth-Hirth-Straße 1, D-73760 Ostfildern.
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